I found a Charles Scholten on Ancestry.com in 1863 age 24, residence Campbell Missouri and occupation artist. This was a Civil War draft record. I also found a Charles Scholten in the 1880 Springfield, Mo census, age 41 occupation saloon keeper, married to Clara, three children Rosa E, age 14, Henry age 10 and Neva age 8.
I found this interesting tidbit in an article documenting Scholten photographing Wild Bill Hickok about September 1865 according to an article written by George Ward Nichols for Harper's New Monthly Magazine. "Hickok and another former army scout Dave Tutt had just been in a classic western shootout on the public square leaving Tutt shot through the heart" as is retold by Donna A. Beardsley, "Two Resource Materials for Teaching about the Old West." Nichols arrived on the scene on Army business and documented the story which other newspaper sensationalized adding to Wild Bill's notoriety.
Beardsly goes on to quote from an 1867 Atchison, Kansas, Champion article in which she mentions the photographer Charles Scholten, " Few, though, would recognize him as being the person described by Nichols, except that Hickok was a "dead shot" and that he was a quiet person but dangerous is provoked" Also from Beardsly's article, "The editor of the Springfield Patriot added that the full-length illustration of Hickok on page one was an accurate reproduction of one of Charles W. Scholten's photographs of "Wild Bill." Hickok had had several photographs taken at Scholten's Photographic Palace of Art in Springfield."